Armenia


Armenia (officially the Republic of Armenia) is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. 



Since 1991 Armenia was one of the 15 Soviet Union Republics. On 23 August 1990, Armenia declared independence, becoming the first non-Baltic republic to secede from the Soviet Union. In 1991September 21, over 99 percent of voters approved the republic's commitment to independence. The immediate aftermath of that vote was the Armenian Supreme Soviet's declaration of full independence, on September 23, in disregard of the constitution's restraints on secession. In 1992 march 22Armenia admitted to the United Nations.
The Constitution of Armenia was adopted by a nationwide referendum on July 5, 1995.On November 27, 2005, a nationwide constitutional referendum was held and an amended constitution was adopted. Armenia is a unitary, multiparty, democratic nation-state with an ancient and historic cultural heritage.


The Kingdom of Armenia became the first state to adopt Christianity as its religion in the early years of the 4th century (the traditional date is 301). The modern Republic of Armenia recognizes the Armenian Apostolic Church as the national church of Armenia, although the republic has separation of church and state.


The national flag of Armenia, the Armenian Tricolor, consists of three horizontal bands of equal width, red on the top, blue in the middle, and orange (also described as "color of apricot") on the bottom. The Armenian Supreme Soviet adopted the current flag on 24 August 1990. On 15 June 2006, the Law on the National Flag of Armenia, governing its usage, was passed by the National Assembly of Armenia. Throughout history, there have been many variations of the Armenian flag. In ancient times, Armenian dynasties were represented by different symbolic animals displayed on their flags. In the twentieth century, various Soviet flags represented the Armenian nation. The meanings of the colors have been interpreted in many different ways. For example, red has stood for the blood shed by Armenian soldiers in war, blue for the Armenian sky, and orange represents the fertile lands of Armenia and the workers who work them. The official definition of the colors, as stated in the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia, is:“ The Red emblematizes the Armenian Highland, the Armenian people's continued struggle for survival, maintenance of the Christian faith, Armenia's independence and freedom. The Blue emblematizes the will of the people of Armenia to live beneath peaceful skies. The Orange emblematizes the creative talent and hard-working nature of the people of Armenia.


The national coat of arms of Armenia consists of an eagle and a lion supporting a shield. The coat of arms combines new and old symbols. The eagle and lion are ancient Armenian symbols dating from the first Armenian kingdoms that existed prior to Christ. The current coat of arms was adopted on April 19, 1992, by the Armenian Supreme Council decision. On June 15, 2006, the law on the state coat of arms of Armenia was passed by the Armenian Parliament. The shield itself consists of many components. In the center is a depiction of Mount Ararat with Noah's Ark sitting atop it. According to tradition, the ark is said to have finally rested on the mountain after the great flood. Ararat is considered the national symbol of Armenia and thus is of principal importance to the coat of arms. Surrounding Mount Ararat are symbols of old Armenian dynasties. In the lower left portion of the shield, there are two eagles looking at each other, symbolizing the length of the Armenian territory during the reign of the Artaxiad Dynasty that ruled in the 1st century BC. In the upper left portion, there is a lion with a cross, the emblem for the Bagratuni dynasty that ruled during the Middle Ages, between the 7th and 11th centuries. Under this dynasty, Armenia blossomed culturally, making its capital, Ani, one of the most important cultural, social and commercial centers of its time. Bagratuni was destroyed by the Byzantine Empire's encroachment and by Seljuk conquests in the 11th century. In the upper right portion, there is a two-headed eagle, the emblem of the first dynasty to reign over a Christian Armenia, the Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia. Tiridates III of Arsacid Dynasty made Armenia the first Christian nation in 301. This dynasty ruled from the 1st century to 428. In the lower right portion, there is a lion with a cross, the emblem of the Rubenid dynasty. This dynasty reigned in Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, a state that expanded and prospered during the 12th and 13th centuries, until the Mamelukes and Turks eventually conquered it. The eagle supports the shield on the left side of the coat of arms, while the lion on the right side. The eagle was the symbol of the Artaxiad Dynasty and later on the symbol of the Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia. It holds the Artaxiad Dynasty's branch of the shield. Whereas, the lion was the symbol of the Bagratuni Dynasty and later on the symbol of the Rubenid Dynasty. It holds the Rubenid Dynasty's branch of the shield. Both of these animals were chosen because of their power, courage, patience, wisdom, and nobility in animal kingdom. The sword represents the power and strength of the nation, breaking the chains of oppression. The broken chain represents effort shown by the nation to gain freedom and independence. The wheat ears represent the hard working nature of the Armenian people. The feather represents the intellectual and cultural heritage of the Armenian people. The ribbon represents the colors of the flag of Armenia. The coat of arms was designed by architect and member of the Russian Academy of Fine Arts Alexander Tamanian (best known for his work on Yerevan's city plan) and artist HakobKojoyan.


MerHayrenik( translated as Our Fatherland) is the national anthem of the Republic of Armenia. Adopted on July 1, 1991, it was also the national anthem of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918–1920), the first modern Armenian state. The lyrics of the anthem are adapted from a version of The Song of an Italian girl (written in 1859) by Mikael Nalbandian (1829–1866). Later set to music by composer BarseghKanachyan (1885–1967).

Մեր Հայրենիք, ազատ, անկախ,
Որ ապրել է դարեդար,
Իր որդիքը արդ կանչում է
Ազատ, անկախ Հայաստան:

Ահա եղբայր, քեզ մի դրոշ,
Զոր իմ ձեռքով գործեցի,
Գիշերները ես քուն չեղա,
Արտասուքով լվացի:

Նայիր նրան`երեք գույնով
Նվիրական մեկ նշան,
Թող փողփողի թշնամու դեմ,
Թող միշտ պանծա Հայաստան:

Ամենայն տեղ մահը մի է,
Մարդ մի անգամ պիտ մեռնի,
Բայց երանի, որ յուր ազգի
Ազատության կզոհվի: